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By R. W. Haywood and W. A. Woods (Auth.)

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169 kg/MJ. 4. 5, and the rational efficiency of the work-producing steam circuit, as calculated from eqn. 8. Take the environment temperature as being equal to the saturation temperature of the steam in the condenser, namely 38 °C. 3%. 5. 3, write down the values of the efficiency ratio and the rational efficiency of the work-producing steam circuit. 8; 80%. 6. 1 MN/m . Isentropic expansion is then continued down to 7 kN/m in the low-pressure cylinder. Calculate the percentage of the total work output that is performed by the HP cylinder.

2(a). Its magnitude may be specified by defining a turbine isentropic efficiency, η τ , as the ratio of the actual enthalpy drop across the turbine to the isentropic enthalpy drop when expanding from the same initial conditions to the same exhaust pressure. Thus Turbine isentropic efficiency, ητ = -A—,-—. A2 3—AZ4' For an ideal turbine this would be 100 % . 7. Lost work due to irreversibility Since the heat input to the cycle is unaffected by these irreversibilities, being still equal to (A3—A2X the reduction in Wntt is equal to the increase in heat rejected.

In a well-lagged turbine plant there is only a small 47 48 Simple Power and Refrigerating Plants stray heat loss, a n d this has been assumed t o b e negligible in Fig. 2. In principle, b o t h plants are non-cyclic open-circuit steady-flow work- producing devices which can exchange heat with only one reservoir— the environment. ut FIG. 1. Flow diagram for reciprocating internal-combustion engine. sary. This arises from the fact that the rational criterion of performance for non-cyclic devices such as these is not of a form which has appealed to the engineer, for reasons which will become apparent.

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