By Roy J. Shephard
This e-book examines the health/fitness interplay in an ancient context. starting in primitive hunter-gatherer groups, the place survival required sufficient actual task, it is going directly to think of alterations in health and wellbeing and actual job at next levels within the evolution of “civilization.” It makes a speciality of the healthiness affects of a becoming knowing of drugs and body structure, and the emergence of a middle-class with the time and cash to choose from energetic and passive hobbies. The booklet displays on urbanization and industrialization with regards to the necessity for public well-being measures, and the ever-diminishing actual calls for of the work-place. It then evaluates the attitudes of prelates, politicians, philosophers and lecturers at every one degree of the method. ultimately, the e-book explores specialist and governmental tasks to extend public involvement in lively rest via numerous institution, worksite, leisure and activities programmes.
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Extra info for An Illustrated History of Health and Fitness, from Pre-History to our Post-Modern World (Studies in History and Philosophy of Science,volume 39)
Canoe crews worked much of a 14 hour day, with just a few minutes rest break each hour to smoke a pipe of tobacco (Nute 1955). Sometimes, they Fig. 8 Shooting the Rapids (Frances Anne Hopkins, 1838–1919 CE). jpg) 14 1 Prehistory concluded a long day of paddling by carrying their canoe and as many as 7 of the 65 pie`ces (42 kg bales of furs) over rugged 1 km portages (Hillman 2010), before ﬁnally setting up a camp for the night. Hernias were reputedly very common as a result of such extreme exertion.
Kalahari children were assigned no formal duties, and leisure was very important to Bush folk of all ages. Particularly during the rainy season, much time was spent in lively sacred dances such as the Giraffe, Drum and Tree dances (Fig. 12). Boys received their ﬁrst bow and arrow at around the age of 12 years, and they killed their ﬁrst large animal between the age of 15 and 18 years of age, as a rite of passage preceding marriage. During the 1950s, the bush people were encouraged to switch to farming as part of a “modernization” programme, sponsored by the South African government.
Other alcoholic beverages are brewed from agave, wheat, berries and Mesquite seeds (Kennedy 1978; Pennington 1963). 5 Meso-America Groups of interest in Meso-America include the Aztecs, the Mayans and Incas, all pastoral societies centred around the cultivation of crops such as maize, rather than hunting and gathering. 1 The Aztecs The Aztecs constructed large and impressive cities with only the simplest of tools, speaking to heavy physical labour on the part of many of their population. The Spaniards were quick to notice and exploit this ability, sometimes making the Aztecs carry loads of 115 kg up steep underground ascents from the mines that they developed (Carrasco and Sessions 1998).