By F. G. Brickwedde (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.)
More than sixty years have elapsed considering the fact that Linde first liquefied air on a advertisement scale and ready the best way for isolating of alternative gaseous combinations. His paintings, although, used to be now not of an remoted nature. It used to be conceived eighteen years after air had, for the 1st time, been liquefied within the laboratory by means of Pictet in Geneva and Caillete in Paris. Linde's liquefaction of air was once by way of Dewar's paintings on hydrogen liquefaction in London and by means of the establishing at Leiden of Kamerlingh Onnes's well-known low temperature laboratory. those advances in low temperature or cryogenic expertise have ended in the institution of a totally new and thriving undefined. Cryogenic engineering is anxious with constructing and bettering low temperature approaches, innovations, and gear; identifying the actual houses of structural and similar fabrics utilized in generating, conserving, and utilizing low temperatures; and the sensible program of low temperature suggestions and techniques. those low tempera tures are lower than these frequently encountered in refrigerating engineering. it is vitally tricky to assign a distinct temperature which serves to divide refrigerating engineering from cryogenic engineering. A temperature under _lSOoC, despite the fact that, is usually linked to cryogenic engineering.
Read or Download Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1954 Cryogenic Engineering Conference National Bureau of Standards Boulder, Colorado September 8–10 1954 PDF
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Additional resources for Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1954 Cryogenic Engineering Conference National Bureau of Standards Boulder, Colorado September 8–10 1954
10 microns. The insulation completely fills the vacuum chamber and is vibrated during filling to attain maximum density. In addition, the Santocel is pre-dried in a vacuum oven. The outer shell, or vacuum casing, is constructed from 1020 low carbon steel. The casing, closed with formed heads 23 Figure 1. 6000-liter liquid oxygen or liquid nitrogen dewar Figure 2. End view of internal suspension system for the 6000-liter dewar Figure 3. Details of suspension system members and end fittings 24 End view of the 6000-liter dewar Figure 4.
Wagner Herrick L. Johnston, Inc. Columbus, Ohio The Johnston design of air tactical dewar consists of an inner stainless steel shell, with a capacity of 750 liters of liquid hydrogen; a liquid nitrogen reservoir, with a capacity of 500 liters. built into the dewar to maintain a copper radiation shield at liquid nitrogen temperature; an outer shell of stainless steel; and a built-in vacuum pump and instrumentation. One end of the dewar is counterweighted so that it hangs in a horizontal position from its one suspension lug, and the center of gravity remains constant to within 3/4 of an inch throughout nitrogen boil-off.
Under these conditions, the normal heat leak and resultant rise in pressure is utilized for liquid transfer purposes. With a 3/4 inch line at a pressure of 20 psig, liquid is delivered at the rate of 500 liters per hour. Larger deliveries can be obtained by increasing the internal pressure or the size of the withdrawal line. The Johnston dewar has been satisfactorily operated at ambient temperatures in excess of 100 0 F. This dewar can be manufactured in capacities from 2000 to 10,000 liters, using the same general design and suspension.