A Grammar of Tommo So - download pdf or read online

By Laura McPherson

Tommo So is a Dogon language with nearly 60,000 audio system in Mali, West Africa. As merely the second one complete grammatical description of a Dogon language, this quantity is a severe source for fixing the secret of Dogon's genetic association with different languages in Africa. Tommo So is an SOV language with separating nominal morphology and agglutinative verbal morphology; suffixes at the verb mark tense/aspect/negation in addition to topic contract. The phonology is delicate to degrees of verbal morphology in that variable vowel concord applies much less often as one strikes to outer layers of the morphology. The tone process of Tommo So is of typological curiosity in either its phonological and syntactic instantiations. Phonologically, it's a two-tone procedure of H and L, yet those distinctive tones distinction with a surface-underspecified tone. Grammatically, the lexical tone of a note is usually overwritten via syntactically-induced overlays. for instance, an inalienable noun's tone might be changed with L whether it is possessed through a non-pronominal possessor, and via both H or HL if the possessor is pronominal. The language has additionally innovated a chain of locative quasi-verbs and concentration debris delicate to pragmatic elements like simple task.

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4–5. 2 Verbal inflection The basic word order is SOV; the inflected verb (be that auxiliary or otherwise) comes at the end of the sentence. Like nominal stems, verb stems in Tommo So belong to one of two tonal classes: /H/ or /LH/ with the L on the first syllable or mora (on monosyllabic verbs). In the rare monomoraic verbs, /LH/ surfaces as simply [L] in the absence of a second mora. Depending on the inflection, the H may surface on the following suffix. Which tone pattern a verb stem will take is partially predictable by the first consonant, with voiced obstruent-initial stems taking /LH/, voiceless obstruent- and vowel-initial stems taking /H/, and sonorant-initial stems lexically listed.

3 Environment Tommo villages are all situated on the plateau of a rocky inselberg3 mountain known as the Bandiagara Escarpment, located between Douentza and Bandiagara; none can be reached by paved roads. The rocky paths are most easily navigable by motorcycle or on foot, though a well-built 4 × 4 can get onto the plateau via the gravel roads at Dogani or Bandiagara. The landscape consists of areas with large boulders interspersed with pebbly or clayey plains and punctuated by small densely wooded copses.

6) a. Mòòmíyó mí=ɲ̀ támbá-gú=sɛ. ’ b. Mí áí H=ɲ̀ màŋgóró ób-aa=be-m. ’ 14 Grammatical sketch c. Yògó bɔ̀gɔ̀ L ɛ̀sú úwɔ ɛ́ bɛ̀-dɛ̀-m. ’ d. É émmé=le Tɔ̀mmɔ̀L Sɔ̀ɔ́ sɔ́ ɔ̀-dɛ̀-y. ’ Note that in example (6b), the independent pronoun mí is acting as a possessor, not as a subject. 7 Relative clauses In relative clauses, the relative participle is devoid of subject inflection. In Jamsay, it is treated nominally, evident from the fact that it agrees with the head noun in nominal features like animacy, but this marking is very limited in Tommo So as a whole and is not present on the relative participle.

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